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Time series of aerosol light scattering coefficients and enhancement factors from humidified tandem nephelometers at twenty-six stations between 1998 and 2017


By Maria A. Burgos*, Elisabeth Andrews, Gloria Titos, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Derek Day, Anne Jefferson, 
Nikos Kalivitis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, James Sherman, Junying Sun, Ernest Weingartner, and Paul Zieger

*Correspondence to maria.burgos@aces.su.se
*Correspondence to paul.zieger@aces.su.se

DATA FILES AND SITE SPECIFIC CONTACTS

The files names are separated according to the stations
APP = Appalachian State, USA, James Sherman (shermanjp_at_appstate.edu)
BRW = Barrow, Alaska, USA, Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
CNG = Chebogue Point, Canada, Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
CES = Cabauw, Netherlands, Paul Zieger (paul.zieger_at_aces.su.se)
FIK = Finokalia, Greece, Nikos Mihalopoulos, (mihalo_at_uoc.gr), Giorgios, Kouvarakis, (gkouvarakis_at_uoc.gr), Nikos kalivitis, (nkalivitis_at_uoc.gr) 
FKB = Black Forest, Germany,  Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
GRW = Graciosa, Portugal,  Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
GSN = Gosan, South Korea,  Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
HFE = Shouxian, China,  Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
HLM = Holme Moss, UK,  Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
HYY = Hyytiälä, Finland, Paul Zieger (paul.zieger_at_aces.su.se)
JFJ = Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, Paul Zieger (paul.zieger_at_aces.su.se)
KCO = Kaashidhoo, R. Maldives, Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
LAN = Linan, China, Junying Sun (jysun_at_cma.gov.cn)
MAO = Manacapuro, Brazil,  Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
MEL = Melpitz, Germany, Paul Zieger (paul.zieger_at_aces.su.se)
MHD = Mace Head, Ireland, Paul Zieger (paul.zieger_at_aces.su.se)
NIM = Niamey, Niger, Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
PGH = Nainital, India, Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
PVC = Cape Cod, USA, Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
PYE = Point Reyes, USA, Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
SGP = Southern Great Planes, USA, Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
THD = Trinidad Head, USA, Elisabeth Andrews (betsy.andrews_at_noaa.gov), Anne Jefferson (anne.jefferson_at_noaa.gov)
UGR = Granada, Spain, Gloria Titos (gtitos_at_ugr.es)
YOS = Yosemite, USA, Derek Day (derek.day_at_colostate.edu)
ZEP = Zeppelin, Svalbard, Norway, Paul Zieger (paul.zieger_at_aces.su.se)

INLETS AND CONDITIONING

Different inlets and conditioning are used for the different sites:
APP - BRW - CBG - FKB - GRW - GSN - HFE - HLM - KCO - LAN - MAO - NIM - PGH - PVC - PYE - SGP - THD: 
heated, stainless steel, sizecut: PM10 and PM1, see full description in Delene and Ogren, J. Atmos. Sci, 2002
CES - HYY - JFJ - MEL - MHD - ZEP:  Impactor--direct, no heater, no cut size
FIK: Impactor--direct, PM10 at ambient humidity inlet
UGR: stainless steel tube, neither with particle size cut-off and heating of sampled air, see full description in Titos, et al., Tellus B, 2014 
YOS: cyclone for PM=2.5 sizecut, RH controled via drying tubes , see full description in Day et al., J. Air Waste Manage, 2000

Data of level1 and level2 are converted to standard temperature (273 K) and pressure (1013 hPa).

File naming convention and data content:
_scat_ = Total light scattering coefficients scat(wl)nm [Mm⁻¹] from nephelometer data. 
_scatb_ = Back light scattering coefficients scatb(wl)nm [Mm⁻¹] from nephelometer data. 
_ref = Measured by reference dry nephelometer.
_wet = Measyres by wet nephelometer.
_fRH = Total scattering enhancement factor at a given value of RH, fRH(wl)nm [no units].
_fRHb = Back scattering enhancement factor at a given value of RH, fRH(wl)nm [no units].
_dry40 = Reference dry conditions set at RH=40%.
_scat_XX =  Total light scattering coefficients at RH=XX% scat_XX(wl)nm [Mm⁻¹].
_scatb_XX =  Back light scattering coefficients at RH=XX% scat_XX(wl)nm [Mm⁻¹].
_f85dry = Total scattering enhancement factor calculated at RH_wet=85% and RH_dry=0-40%, f85dry(wl)nm [no units].
_fb85dry = Back scattering enhancement factor calculated at RH_wet=85% and RH_dry=0-40%, fb85dry(wl)nm [no units].
_f8540 = Total scattering enhancement factor calculated at RH_wet=85% and RH_dry=40%, f8540(wl)nm [no units].
_fb8540 = Back scattering enhancement factor calculated at RH_wet=85% and RH_dry=40%, fb8540(wl)nm [no units].

wl = wavelength of light

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was supported by the Department of Energy (USA) under project DE-SC0016541. 
The humidified nephelometer measurements at BRW and SGP were  funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE/ARM) program via Argonne National Laboratory. 
The DOE/ARM Program Climate Research Facility and the DOE Atmospheric Sciences Program funded the AMF deployments (FKB, GRW, HFE, MAO, NIM, PGH, PVC, PYE). 
Measurements at KCO were supported by the National Science Foundationg (Grant ATM-961288). 
The CBG humidified nephelometer measurements were supported by the NOAA Climate Goal program.  
The HLM measurements were supported by DOE’s ASP program under grant DE-A102-05ER63996. 
The GSN measurementes were supported by NSF grant 0138250.
The humidified nephelometer measurements operated by the Paul Scherrer Institute (CES, JFJ, MEL, MHD, ZEP, and HYY) and the instrument development itself were financially supported by the projects ESA Climate Change Initiative Aerosol cci (ESRIN/Contract No. 4000101545/10/I-AM), the Swiss National Science Foundation (Advanced Postdoc.Mobility fellowship; grant no. P300P2\_147776), and by the EC-projects Global Earth Observation and Monitoring (GEOmon, contract 036677) and European Supersites for Atmospheric Atmospheric Aerosol Research (EUSAAR, contract 026140). 
The measurements of the University of Granada (UGR) were supported by the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, AEI, through projects CGL2016-81092-R and CGL2017-90884-REDT and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program through project ACTRIS-2 (grant agreement No 654109). 
The Lin'an site observation was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41475118).

CITATION

Maria A. Burgos, Elisabeth Andrews, Gloria Titos, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Derek Day, Anne Jefferson, Nikos Kalivitis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, James Sherman, Junying Sun, Ernest Weingartner, and Paul Zieger. Time series of aerosol light scattering coefficients and enhancement factors from humidified tandem nephelometers at twenty-six stations between 1998 and 2017.
https://doi.org/10.21336/gen.4

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ASSOCIATED ARTICLE(S)

Scientific Data, volume 6, Article number: 57 (2019)

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