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Trends in atmospheric sulfur components from the major regional monitoring network including results from six global atmospheric transport models, 1990-2015 (data from 1980)


By Wenche Aas*, Augustin Mortier, Van Bowersox, Ribu Cherian, Greg Faluvegi, Hilde Fagerli, Jenny Hand, Zbigniew Klimont, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Christopher M.B. Lehmann, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Gunnar Myhre, Dirk Olivié, Keiichi Sato, Johannes Quaas, P.S.P. Rao, Michael Schulz, Drew Shindell, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Ariel Stein, Toshihiko Takemura, Svetlana Tsyro, Robert Vet, Xiaobin Xu

*Correspondence to waa_at_nilu.no

DATA POLICY

The data are available free of charge for non-commercial and scientific use. By using this data, you as data user accept that an offer of co-authorship will be made through personal contact with the data providers or owners whenever substantial use is made of their data. In all cases, an acknowledgement must be made to the networks and/or models when these data are used within a publication. When used, the dataset should be cited using the Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

DATA FILES AND CONTACTS

Measurement data was collected from different regional and global networks, in total 365 sites. There are one file for each of the three different components, SO2, SO4 in aerosols and wet deposition of SO4. Model results from six global models and one regional model are given for the same sites. The headings should be self-explaining with information of stations, coordinates, networks, field methods, sampling frequencies, observational data and model results.

The air concentrations are calculated as monthly mean, while wet deposition as monthly total deposition, all data based on 70% or better data coverage in the period. The original data are found in the URL to access original data the different networks, and contact person for the data used in this work is given.

  • CAPMoN: The Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (URL: https://open.canada.ca/en/open-data ) Robert Vet <robert.vet_alfa_canada.ca>.
  • CASTNET: Clean Air Status and Trends Network (URL: https://www.epa.gov/castnet), Christopher M.B. Lehmann <clehmann_alfa_illinois.ed>.
  • EANET: Acid Deposition Network in East Asia (URL: http://www.eanet.asia/), Keiichi Sato <ksato_alfa_acap.asi.>
  • EMEP: The European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (URL: http://ebas.nilu.no/), Wenche Aas <waa_alfa_nilu.no>.
  • INDAAF International Network to study Deposition and Atmospheric chemistry in Africa (URL: https://indaaf.obs-mip.fr), Corinne Galy-Lacaux <corinne.galy-lacaux_alfa_aero.obs-mip.fr>.
  • IMPROVE Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (URL: http://vista.cira.colostate.edu/improve/ ), Jenny Hand <Jenny.Hand_alfa_colostate.edu>.
  • NADP: National Atmospheric Deposition Program, including, (URL http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/), Christopher M.B. Lehmann <clehmann_alfa_illinois.ed>. 
  • NBPN: New Brunswick Precipitation Network (URL: https://open.canada.ca/en/open-data). Robert Vet <robert.vet_alfa_canada.ca>.   
  • MAP3S-AIRMoN: Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (URL: http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/), Christopher M.B. Lehmann <clehmann_alfa_illinois.ed>.
  • GAW _ China: Global Atmosphere Watch, regional sites in China, Xiaobin Xu <xuxb_alfa_camscma.cn>.
  • GAW _India. Global Atmosphere Watch. Includes regional sites in India, P.S.P.Rao <psprao_alfa_tropmet.res.in>.
  • GAW: WMO/GAW World Data Centre for Precipitation Chemistry (URL: http://www.wdcpc.org/), Van Bowersox< soxxos_alfa_sbcglobal.net>.
    The model input are from the following models with the respective attributes used, including their contact persons:
  • ECHAM6-HAM, resolution T63 1.8° x 1.8° L31, Climatological monthly varying fixed-SST and sea ice extent averaged for the period 1979 to 2008. Contact: Ribu Cherian <ribu.cherian_alfa_uni-leipzig.de> and Johannes Quaas <j.quaas_alfa_uni-leipzig.de>.
  • EMEP (MSC-W rv4.5 global), resolution 0.5° x 0.5° L20, 2010 meteorology, 3 hourly from ECMWF-IFS. Contact: Hilde Fagerli <hildef_alfa_met.no> and Svetlana G. Tsyro <svetlanat_alfa_met.no>.
  • EMEP-reg (MSC-W rv4.9 Europe), resolution 50x50km L20, 2010 meteorology, 3 hourly from ECMWF-IFS. Contact: Hilde Fagerli <hildef_alfa_met.no> and Svetlana G. Tsyro <svetlanat_alfa_met.no>.
  • GISS, resolution 2.0° x 2.5° L40, 2000 climatological monthly varying fixed-SSTs and sea-ice, contact person: Drew Shindell <drew.shindell_alfa_duke.edu> and Greg Faluvegi <greg.faluvegi_alfa_gmail.com>. 
  • NorESM, resolution 1.9° x 2.5° L26 Climatological monthly varying fixed SSTs and sea ice extent over the 1990-2013 period,contact: Dirk Jan Leo Olivie <dirkjlo_alfa_met.no>
  • OsloCTM, resolution T42 2.8° x 2.8° L60, 2010 meteorology, 3 hourly, ECMWF based, Contacts: Gunnar Myhre <gunnar.myhre_alfa_cicero.oslo.no> and Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie <r.b.skeie_alfa_cicero.oslo.no>.
  • SPRINTARS, resolution 1.125˚ x 1.125˚ L56, Climatological monthly varying fixed SSTs and sea ice extent over the 1988-1992 period, Toshihiko Takemura <toshi_alfa_riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp>.

All models use identical anthropogenic emission data from the EU project ECLIPSE for the 1990 to 2015 period. A direct link to the respective dataset are found here: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/research/researchPrograms/air/ECLIPSEv5a.htm l. Contact person: Zbigniew Klimont

STATISTICAL RESULT FILES

The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to detect and estimate trends. Theil-Sen's slope estimator was used to quantify the magnitude of potential trends. Trends was calculated for the periods, 1980-1990,1990,2000,2000-2010,1990-2015,2000-2015 and for each of the periods the sites were selected based on the criteria that number of available years should be at least 75% of the total number of years in the period. The statistics were done from both yearly and seasonal averages based on monthly mean data. At least 10 measurements are required per season for being used in the statistics. The yearly averages are computed from the seasonally averages if the four seasonal averages are available (with more than 10 measurements) per year. Data from the same sites and periods have been extracted from the model output and trends have been calculated in similar way. Note that for most of the models (except NorESM, ECHAM6 and EMEPreg), there are only modelled data for each 5 year period.

The statistical results are presented in individual files for component, time period and season. The first line have a heading for observations and the individual models. The second column includes information on site name, co-ordinates and region (North America (denoted US), Europe, East Asia and Africa). There are three columns for each category (observation and models) indicating the significance level in the trend (PVal), the percent change per year (Slp(%/yr)) and the changes in absolute concentration/deposition per year (Slp(µgS/m3 or kgS/ha).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This study benefited from the Norwegian research council project #229796 (AeroCom-P3) and the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) project # 282688 (ECLIPSE). Data providers from all the regional and global networks are greatly acknowledged for sharing and submitting their data to be used.

CITATION

Wenche Aas, Augustin Mortier, Van Bowersox, Ribu Cherian, Greg Faluvegi, Hilde Fagerli, Jenny Hand, Zbigniew Klimont, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Christopher M.B. Lehmann, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Gunnar Myhre, Dirk Olivié, Keiichi Sato, Johannes Quaas, P.S.P. Rao, Michael Schulz, Drew Shindell, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Ariel Stein, Toshihiko Takemura, Svetlana Tsyro, Robert Vet, Xiaobin Xu (2018). Trends in atmospheric sulfur components from the major regional monitoring network including results from six global atmospheric transport models, 1990-2015 (data from 1980). https://doi.org/10.21336/GEN.2

DOWNLOAD DATA

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